Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Hinduism in Italy

Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo.Hinduism in Italy. Goddess Lakshimi in the ancient city of Pompeii, this statue survived the volcano explosion in 79 AC.
In 1939, Italian archeologist Prof Maiuri, discovered an artifact in the ruins of ancient Pompeii, that had a very Indian origin. This ivory statuette which survived the disaster and lasted all these 2000 years was identified by Prof Maiuri as that of the Goddess Lakshmi and dated to around 1AD. It has since then been quoted as the ‘Goddess Lakshmi statue in Pompeii’ in many books & articles.
The statue portrays Lakshmi, Indian divinity of feminine beauty and fertility. It wears scanty, transparent clothing that accentuates the contours of her body and sharply contrasts with her abundant jewelry. Her body is adorned with heavy jewels: a diadem on her forehead, a necklace on her chest and large and numerous rings on her ankles and wrists. Her long hair, also richly embellished, flows over her shoulders down to her waist. In this respect she compares closely with female figures sculpted on Buddhist monuments at prominent monastic sites such as Bharhut (late 2nd c. BCE.) and Sanchi (50-25 BCE) in central India as well as Karle (50-75 CE) in western India.
Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo. She seems to raise her left hand in order to support the enormous weight of the conical earring in her left ear. Similar earrings are depicted on terracotta figurines that circulated in eastern India during the 3rd-2nd centuries B.C.E. and a shell example has been discovered at the site of Kausambi in northern India.
A heavy, multi-chained necklace with a triangular pendant shaped like a lotus blossom falls in between her breasts, while two more lotus forms protrude from the necklace immediately below each shoulder. In ancient Indian mythology, lotuses were considered to be symbols of the cyclical nature of creation and perfect embodiments of the cosmos.
The letter ‘si’, which is inscribed on the statuette’s base in kharoshthi (a script commonly used in northwest India), together with the emphasis on adornment may lead us to identify this figure as Sri Lakshmi, the goddess of beauty, prosperity, and abundance.
Richly adorned female figures were particularly popular subjects in ancient Indian art and literature. By the 2nd century B.C.E. portable figurines and plaques made of terracotta, bone, and ivory featuring bejewelled female figures were produced and widely distributed throughout India. Similar figures were sculpted in stone, either independently or paired with male figures, and placed on exterior walls, gateways, and railings of Buddhist monuments all over the Indian subcontinent. Additionally, in secular texts composed during the first half of the first millennium C.E., notably in Vatsayana’s Kamasutra, ideal images of beauty were prescribed for both men and women.
The heavily ornamented female figure at the center of this portable ivory statuette found in a residence on the Via della Abbondanza in Pompei clearly belongs to this genre of images from the Indian subcontinent.
The figure’s exact identity is quite unclear. However in terms of iconography and technique, the closest comparisons can be made with ivory figurines recovered from the central and northwestern parts of the sub-continent and datable to the 1st century A.D. Two of these examples were found at the sites of Bhokardan and Ter in central India and a third was excavated in Begram, Afghanistan along with a large cache of ivory, bone, glass, and metal objects.
Although these four figurines are not perfect matches, their shared iconographic and compositional features suggest that they may have been produced in the same region (probably central India) before being distributed to other regions.
This small, rare sculpture, found in a modest dwelling in Pompeii, represents nonetheless an important indication of a trade relations that existed already by the 1st century A.D. between the Roman Empire and India.
The Romans imported many goods from India and at the same time set up their own trading stations in the country. A particularly famous one was at Arikamedu (near modern Pondicherry), where Roman coins, amphoras and roman glass have been found.
Moeller (The wool trade of ancient Pompeii Walter O. Moeller Pg 76) feels that there existed a trade of dye stuff between Indian and Pompeii based on the fact that the building next door to the one that housed the statuette was a dye house. So he feels that the statue perhaps came together with a shipment of Indigo dyes.
Researcher K. V. Ramakrishna Rao feels that the statue is much older. He contends in his paper (Ganges Valley Civilization to Indus Valley Civilization to Saraswati Valley civilization) that the statuette could perhaps be dated to an older pre-Mauryan period i.e., before 300 BCE.
Amazing! This little statue survived the intense heat of the lava, the disaster and is now a testament to the trade relations between the ancient Rome & India dating back over 2000 yeaRS.
Mystery of India.com

customs in india

Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo.India is considered a country, which is a culturally and traditionally diverse. We, Indians, hold dear our customs and traditions. Traditions in Hinduism were considered mainly as superstitions, but with the advent of science, it is becoming evident that these traditions are based on some scientific knowledge and moved from generations to generations as traditions. Though the common people did not know science in it, they were following it very faithfully over the years.
Let us look at some of these curious and amazing scientific explanations
Science behind Indian traditions.
Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo. Joining both palms together to greet.
In Hindu culture, people greet each other by joining their palms – termed as “Namaskar.” The general reason behind this tradition is that greeting by joining both the palms means respect. However, scientifically speaking, joining both hands ensures joining the tips of all the fingers together; which are denoted to the pressure points of eyes, ears, and mind. Pressing them together is said to activate the pressure points which helps us remember that person for a long time. And, no germs since we don’t make any physical contact!
Throwing coins into a river
The general reasoning given for this act is that it brings Good Luck. However, scientifically speaking, in the ancient times, most of the currency used was made of copper unlike the stainless steel coins of today. Copper is a vital metal very useful to the human body. Throwing coins in the river was one way our fore-fathers ensured we intake sufficient copper as part of the water as rivers were the only source of drinking water. Making it a custom ensured that all of us follow the practice.
Applying Tilak on the forehead
On the forehead, between the two eyebrows, is a spot that is considered as a major nerve point in human body since ancient times. The Tilak is believed to prevent the loss of “energy”, the red ‘kumkum’ between the eyebrows is said to retain energy in the human body and control the various levels of concentration. While applying kumkum the points on the mid-brow region and Adnya-chakra are automatically pressed. This also facilitates the blood supply to the face muscles.
Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo. Why do we have Navratras?
Our living style has drastically changed if we compare it to the society hundreds & thousands of years ago. The traditions which we follow in present are not establishments of today but of the past. Ever thought, why do we have Navratras twice a year unlike other festivals like Deepawali or Holi? Well, both these months are the months of changing seasons and the eating habits of both the seasons are quite different from each other.
Navratras give enough time to the body to adjust and prepare itself for to the changing season. These nine days were marked as a period when people would clean their body system by keeping fasts by avoiding excessive salt and sugar, meditate, gain a lot of positive energy, gain a lot of self confidence & increase the self determination power (fasts are a medium to improve our will power and self determination) and finally get ready for the challenges of the changed season

The Eternal Flames of Jwala Temple.

Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo.The Eternal Flames of Jwala Temple.
Jwala Ji is Hindu temple located in the lower Himalayan town of Jawalamukhi in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. Dedicated to Hindu goddess Jwala, temple is probably the most ancient temple in India. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata and other scriptures. Unlike any other temple, Jwala Ji temple doesn’t have a statue or an image, but a constantly burning blue flame that seems to come from the rocks. The flame can be seen at various places in the temple and it is burning continuously since first date of its known history.
Despite many scientific researches, the reason behind these natural flames couldn’t be found out. The scientists say there is a sleeping volcano under Jwala Ji temple and the natural gas coming out of that volcano is burning as flames, which Hindus revere as Goddess.
During 70s a foreign company was appointed by Government of India to explore possibilities of big reservoirs of natural gas there. They worked for some years but left saying they could not find any gas.

Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo. The Mughal Emperor Akbar once tried to extinguish the flames by covering them with an iron disk and even channelizing water to them. But the flames blasted all these efforts. Akbar then presented a golden parasol at the shrine. Even Aurangzeb, returned back to Delhi after knowing Maa Jwala Devi’s powers.
There is surely some other phenomena and science that is working behind Jwala Ji eternal flame but that can be indication of glory of our ancestors. Till now no scientists or geologists says nothing since they only tried their level best to find a clue but, failed.
History of Jwala Devi’s eternal flame
The legend of the Jwala Ji Temple relates to Sati -granddaughter of Lord Brahma and wife of Lord Shiva. It is here that Sati’s tongue fell which can now be seen in the form of the flame.
'Miracle flame.

Bing.com' According to legends Sati immolated herself after her father insulted Lord Shiva. In his rage at loosing his wife, angry Shiva performed the fearsome and awe-inspiring Tandava dance with Sati’s charred body on his shoulders. During this dance, Sati’s body came apart and the pieces fell at different places on earth.
According to another version, Shiva placed Sati’s body on his shoulder and ran about the world, crazed with grief. The Gods called upon the God Vishnu to restore Shiva to normalcy and calm. Vishnu used his Sudarshana Chakra (a spinning, disk-like weapon) to dismember Sati’s lifeless body, following which Shiva regained his equanimity. Both versions state that Sati’s body was thus dismembered into 51 pieces which fell on earth at various places. These places came to known as Shakti Peeths. Sati’s tongue fell at the place where Jwala Ji temple is located and the goddess is manifest as tiny flame that burns flawless blue through fissures in the age-old rock.
'Goddess Jwala Maa. Maa means mother. The miracle is nine eternal flames without any fuel, exist and receive worship from devotees in Jwala Devi temple in India. This shrine is located in the lower Himalayas in Jwalamukhi town of the KangraHimachal Pradesh (state) of India.

http://jaimatadibgr.blogspot.com/2011/02/jay-mata-di.html' History of Jwala Devi Temple
The temple is supposed to be first built by a king Raja Bhumi Chandra who, on the complain of a cowherd, tried to find out the a female who came out of the forest and drank the milk of his cow. Since, the king was aware of the legend of Sati, he continued his search for the place and finally succeeded. He constructed a temple there and employed priest to perform puja (prayer). Later, Pandavas came and carried out some renovation work in the temple.
The modern building of temple is with a gilt dome and pinnacles and possesses a beautiful folding door of silver plates, presented by Maharaja Kharak Singh. His father, Maharaja Ranjit Singh also presented the gilt roof in 1815 AD. The interior of the temple consists of a square pit about 3 feet deep with a pathway all around.
The term ‘Jwala‘ means “flame” in Sanskrit and ‘Ji‘ is an honorific used in the Indian subcontinent. Goddess Jwala is also referred to as Mata Jvala Ji and Mata Jwala Mukhi Ji.
Mystery of india.com.

The Influence of Hinduism in Hollywood movies


Image:  Bing.com'
The Influence of Hinduism in Hollywood movies. End of report.
3. Interstellar (2014)
In this movie the entire plot design was based on the ideal of a universal super-consciousness that transcends space and time and in which all human life is connected. This belief has actually existed for nearly 3000 years and the concept itself originates from the Vedic period.

Image:  Bing.com'

Image:  Bing.com' In Interstellar, there is a concept- 1 Hour on Miller planet is equal to 7 Years on Earth. Due to a technical snag, the team is forced to spend 3 hours on that planet resulting in the loss of 23 years on Earth. Which means 10 years old daughter of Hero becomes 33 years old and the hero remains of the same age.
In Hindu Mythology, once in the war between Deva and Asura (Gods & Demons), Lord Indra took the help of (Human) king Muchukunda. King Muchukunda helped gods in the war, but the war lasted for 1 year and that was in heaven. After the war was over, when Muchukunda expresses desire to go back to earth to meet his family, Indra tells him that 1 year in Heaven is equal to 360 years on Earth, hence his family & kingdom must have been destroyed by now with the passage of time.
'Stars Wars.

Image:  Bing.com' Shrimad Bhagawata Gita (9-3-27 to 36) gives a story that king Kakudmi and his daughter Revati travels through heaven to meet the deity Brahma. Lord Brahma explained them that time runs differently on different planes of existence, and that during the short time they had waited in heaven to see him, thousands of years had passed on Earth. When King Kakudmi and Revati returned to earth, they were shocked by the changes that had taken place. Landscape and environment on earth were changed and mankind was at a lower level of development than in their own time. The Bhagavata Purana describes that they found the race of men had become “dwindled in stature, reduced in vigour, and enfeebled in intellect.”
Another scene in the movie has the hero of the film, played by Matthew McConaughey, referencing a central notion of the oldest philosophical manuscripts of India, known as the Upanishads. These ancient writings embrace that the individual minds of humans are simply concise manifestations within a celestial one.
  McConaughey’s character also engages in a situation that references Indra’s net. Indra’s Net is a Hindu metaphor that portrays the entire universe as an everlasting “web of existence spun by the king of the gods, each of its intersections adorned with an infinitely sided jewel, every one continually reflecting the others.”
Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo.4. Star Wars Series.
In Star Wars, Princess Leia is kidnapped and held against her will by an evil Warlord, Darth Vader. Her desperate cry for help is delivered by a mysterious non-human entity—the android R2-D2—to the youthful hero Luke Skywalker. The hero then comes to the princess’s rescue, aided by a devoted and noble creature that is half-man and half-animal, Chewbacca.
By the end of the original “Star Wars” trilogy, Luke, aided by the mystical Jedi knight Obi-Wan Kenobi and leading legions of anthropomorphic bear soldiers, wages a huge war. Darth Vader and his evil empire are defeated, the princess is returned to safety, and peace and righteousness return.
By comparison, in the Ramayana, Princess Sita is also kidnapped and held against her will by the demon Ravana. Her cry for help is delivered by a mysterious non-human entity—Jatayu—to the youthful hero Lord Rama. Rama then comes to his wife’s rescue, aided by a devoted and noble creature that is half-man and half-animal, the monkey god Hanuman.
Rama also wages a war to get Sita back, leading an army of Vanaras (bears and monkeys who have anthropomorphic characteristics), and finally rescues her from Ravana. The forces of the underworld defeated, Rama-raja (the kingdom of truth and righteousness) reigns supreme.
There are also other parallels between Star Wars and the Vedic tradition. The relationship between Yoda and Luke is similar to the traditional guru/disciple relationship, and the instructions Yoda gives are “almost verbatim” from the Bhagavad Gita, the ancient spiritual manual spoken by Lord Krishna to Prince Arjuna before the war of Mahabharata.
As the training progresses, Luke learns to control what is called ‘The Force’. Yoda explains that everything is part of the Force, such as the “…the tree, the rock…” etc. This Force is very similar to the Hindu concept of the One or the Universe (in essence Om). In Hinduism it is said that we are all part of the One, just like what Yoda said about the Force. Simply put, it is concluded that Yoda was referring to “the Force” as the Force of the One.
George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars, didn’t exactly deny all these similarities, but was very guarded about his influences, saying enigmatically, “I’m telling an old myth in a new way.”
5. Inception.
Inception is essentially Indian philosophy re-visited. According to Adi Shankaracharya, (788-820 AD), the renowned exponent of the Advaita Vedanta School of philosophy, there is a dichotomy between illusion and reality which he succinctly sums up in the following quote: “Brahma satya. Jagat mithya, jivo brahmaiva naparah” (Brahman is the only truth, the spatio-temporal world is an illusion, and there is ultimately no difference between Brahman and individual self.)
The Hindus believe that our “reality” is an illusion, or ‘Maya’. More specifically, it is the dream of a God. The universe comes into being when the great preserver Lord Vishnu falls asleep. Brahma emerges from his navel, floating on a lotus flower, and begins the work of creation. After a number of aeons, Vishnu awakens, Brahma is sucked back into his navel, and the universe is destroyed.
According to the movie, as one goes deeper and deeper into the Dream Levels, time is stretched, what is 5 minutes in reality turn to an hour in Level 1 and so on, increasing exponentially and successively, as one goes deeper into the Levels. The deeper you go, the further removed your mind is from reality.
This concept of Dream level and Dream Time of inception is again similar to The Hindu units of measurement.
1 day (day only) of Brahma = 4.32 billion human years = 1000 Mahā-Yugas The Ultimate Reality of Brahma
1 day of the Devas (Gods) = 1 year of Human The Devas’s Level
1 day of the Pitṛs (ancestors) = 30 days of the Human The Pitr’s (Ancestor’s) Level
1 Day of Human Our (Normal Human’s) Level
Thus, life as we know it is but a dream, generated because our god-self has fallen asleep. We have forgotten our origins. We have come to believe that this dream is real. In this spiritual limbo, we will continue to be born into a life of suffering over and over.
According to Hinduism the whole world is nothing but a manifestation of god’s thoughts.
Five Hollywood Movies influenced by Hinduism.
The philosophy behind a couple of super hit movies in Hollywood is based on Hinduism. Hollywood itself has actually been embracing arcane Indian systems for a long time now. A few well-known Hollywood stars have willingly and openly expressed this fact to the public. Obvious and hidden references to Hindu symbolism can be found in many movies, including Batman, Superman and Memento. Let’s examine the plots of some movies that are based on Vedic teachings.
1. Avatar (2009)
Well it’s not surprising that James Cameron’s Avatar has hit the all time success as it portrays the picture of a cosmic nature.
First of all the word ‘Avatar‘ is Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language, in which much of India’s literature was written. It is closely translated in English as ‘incarnation’. The term, is most widely associated in Hinduism with Lord Vishnu, the deity whose Avatar (incarnations) are often depicted as having blue skin, similar to the Na’vi in Cameron’s Avatar.
Just as Hindu gods, particularly Vishnu, become avatars to save the order of the universe, the film’s avatar must descend to avert impending ultimate doom, effected by a rapacious greed that leads to destroying the world of nature and other civilizations.
Tails of the Na’vi’s very closely resembles the Monkey people or Vanaras met by Lord Rama in the deep woods of Central India, and who became his allies under the leadership of their king Sugriva and their champion Hanuman.
Another concept found in Hindu diaspora is leaving one’s body temporarily and entering the body of another person. Something quite similar happens in the movies as Humans are able to temporarily enter the body of a Na’vi. In Hinduism, this concept is called as Parakaya Pravesham. Puranas have hundreds of stories based on astral travel or body travel.
A more visible symbol in the movie is that of the characters in Avatar riding on a flying dragon like being. This is more like Lord Vishnu riding on a giant bird Garuda. Many Indian deities are shown flying on a bird/animal cum vehicle.
The colour Blue is used to depict “the infinite nature of Brahman” (Supreme Spirit, because blue is the colour of the sky, ether and divinity) that is manifested through Avatars. Hence the reason, pictures of Avatars such as Rama and Krishna are blue.
Explaining the choice of the color blue for the Na’vi, Cameron said “I just like blue. It’s a good color … plus, there’s a connection to the Hindu deities, which I like conceptually.” Cameron also said “I have just loved … the mythology, the entire Hindu pantheon, seems so rich and vivid. I didn’t want to reference the Hindu religion so closely, but the subconscious association was interesting, and I hope I haven’t offended anyone in doing so.“
2. Matrix Trilogy (1999 – 2003)
Peter Rader, a Hollywood movie producer claims that the Matrix movie is actually based on yogic principles. It says that this world is an illusion. It’s about Maya – that if we can cut through the illusions and connect with something larger we can do all sorts of things. The hero of the movie gains the capabilities of advanced Yogis who are believed to be able to defy laws of normal reality.
Matrix is of that age when machine will reproduce the human being and have total controls of everything. There is a virtual reality program that make them feel alive but in reality they were in a cave where they have a connection of that virtual reality program directly behind of their head. When they go inside the virtual reality program they feel it real because the virtual reality program hide fact that whatever they are doing is not real and they are totally in the control of machine.
In Hindu mythology there is also a Virtual Program called ‘Maya‘ made by god to hide himself to all people. So people live in the effect of Maya and think everything is real but in reality everything is virtual.
In movie, there was a group of people who came out of that virtual reality program and know the real world. They know what is real and what is virtual. But still they dont have hundred percent believe when they are in that program.
So in Hindu mythology there are many saints who have seen beyond Maya and met with god. They know whatever looks is false reality is beyond this wall of imagination.
The concept of “Guru” or spiritual teacher is wonderfully depicted through the interaction of Morpheus and Neo. The action choreography of the movies especially of that between Neo and Mr. Smith at the end, matches the descriptions of fighting between Duryodhana and Bhima in the Mahabharata.
Navras, The track that plays over the closing credits is a Vedic Shloka. The song contains an adaption of the Asato ma mantra found in the Hindu sacred text the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
asato mā sad gamaya
tamaso mā jyotir gamaya
mṛtyor mā amṛtaṁ gamaya
Om shānti shānti śhāntiḥ
From ignorance lead me to truth
From darkness lead me to light
From death lead me to immortality
Om peace, peace, peace
How movies embraced Hinduism – The Guardian
Themes is Avatar – Wikipedia
Interstellar a journey into the Hindu Mind Dimension – Hindu Human Rights
King Kakudmi and Revati – Wikipedia
Could Star Wars be Based on Vedic Literature?
Inception Explaned – Times Of India

Mystery of India.com

Vijay Stambh – Tower of Victory in Rajasthan

Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo.Vijay Stambh – Tower of Victory in Rajasthan
Vijay Stambha or Tower of Victory is one of the most famous monuments of India and is an important tourist attraction of Rajasthan. Located in Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan, India, Tower of Victory was constructed by Mewar king Rana Kumbha between 1442 AD and 1449 AD to honour his distinguished victory over the joint attacks of Sultan Mohammad Khilji of Malva and Sultan Kutubuddin Shah of Gujarat.
Its graceful and immaculate arch...itecture is unique. Dedicated to Vishnu, this 37.19 m high tower was constructed on a 14 m square platform. Its base width is 9 m. The Tower is built partly of red sand stone and partly of white marble.
Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo.Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo.Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo. The interior and exterior are delicately carved showing Hindu deities of mythological characters with names. The inscribed slabs in the uppermost story contains genealogy of the rulers of Chittaur from Hamir to Rana Kumbha. The entire tower is covered with architectural ornaments and inscribed images of gods and goddesses, seasons, weapons, musical instruments, etc. Its inscribed sculpture are a veritable text-book of Hindu iconography. The portraits of the architect of this tower Jaita and his 3 sons, Napa, Puja, and Poma are carved on the fifth floor of the tower.
The Tower has nine storey, each of the nine storey are distinctly marked with openings and balconies at every face of each storey. The 157 circular and narrow steps which leads to the terrace is also a noticeable feature of the architecture. After reaching at the top of tower, anyone can see a great and unique view of the whole city. The uppermost floor has been sealed off and is no longer accessible to visitors.
The area around the Vijay Stambh is littered with an impressive number of further remains, including a pair of monumental gateways and a number of florid temples, including the superbly decorated Samiddhesvara Temple, whose shrine houses an image of the trimurti, a composite, three-headed image of Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu.
Several temples line the route, but the most impressive monument is Kirti Stambh. The inspiration for the tower of victory, this smaller Tower of Fame is 22 metre high and was built by a Jain merchant Jeeja Bhagerwala during the reign of Rawal Kumar Singh (1179-1191) for the glory of Jainism.
In the night, colourful lights increase its beauty. When reaching near Vijaya stambh (Tower of Victory) and viewing it from bottom gives great feelings of old time architecture and joy of victory. So really its a great piece of monuments and must be included in great architecture of India.

Mystery of India.com

Ashoka Piller

'Think it twice before you think christendom discovered free inquiry....'

Kumbhalgarh fort of Maharana Pratap

'Kumbhalgarh fort(महाराणा प्रताप सिंह जी का जन्मस्थान कुँभलगढ़)
The thick walls of this mighty fort stretch some 36km and are wide enough for eight horses to ride abreast. The massive walls are claimed to be the second-longest continuous wall after the Great Wall of China.
Built by Rana Kumbha in the 15th century on an unassailable hill, the fort fell only once, due to a shortage of water.
Built on a hilltop 1100 metres above sea level, the fort of Kumbhalgarh has perimeter walls that extend 36 kilometres. The frontal walls are fifteen feet thick. Kumbhalgarh has seven fortified gateways. There are over 360 temples within thefort, 300 ancient Jain and the rest Hindu . From the palace top, it is possible to look tens of kilometers into the
Aravalli Range.'Kumbhalgarh fort(महाराणा प्रताप सिंह जी का जन्मस्थान कुँभलगढ़)
The thick walls of this mighty fort stretch some 36km and are wide enough for eight horses to ride... abreast. The massive walls are claimed to be the second-longest continuous wall after the Great Wall of China.
Built by Rana Kumbha in the 15th century on an unassailable hill, the fort fell only once, due to a shortage of water.
Built on a hilltop 1100 metres above sea level, the fort of Kumbhalgarh has perimeter walls that extend 36 kilometres. The frontal walls are fifteen feet thick. Kumbhalgarh has seven fortified gateways. There are over 360 temples within thefort, 300 ancient Jain and the rest Hindu . From the palace top, it is possible to look tens of kilometers into the
Aravalli Range.